We present InfinityGAN, a method to generate arbitrary-resolution images. The problem is associated with several key challenges. First, scaling existing models to a high resolution is resource-constrained, both in terms of computation and availability of high-resolution training data. Infinity-GAN trains and infers patch-by-patch seamlessly with low computational resources. Second, large images should be locally and globally consistent, avoid repetitive patterns, and look realistic. To address these, InfinityGAN takes global appearance, local structure and texture into account.With this formulation, we can generate images with resolution and level of detail not attainable before. Experimental evaluation supports that InfinityGAN generates imageswith superior global structure compared to baselines at the same time featuring parallelizable inference. Finally, we how several applications unlocked by our approach, such as fusing styles spatially, multi-modal outpainting and image inbetweening at arbitrary input and output resolutions
This paper tackles a challenging problem of generating photorealistic images from semantic layouts in few-shot scenarios where annotated training pairs are hardly available but pixel-wise annotation is quite costly. We present a training strategy that performs pseudo labeling of semantic masks using the StyleGAN prior. Our key idea is to construct a simple mapping between the StyleGAN feature and each semantic class from a few examples of semantic masks. With such mappings, we can generate an unlimited number of pseudo semantic masks from random noise to train an encoder for controlling a pre-trained StyleGAN generator. Although the pseudo semantic masks might be too coarse for previous approaches that require pixel-aligned masks, our framework can synthesize high-quality images from not only dense semantic masks but also sparse inputs such as landmarks and scribbles. Qualitative and quantitative results with various datasets demonstrate improvement over previous approaches with respect to layout fidelity and visual quality in as few as one- or five-shot settings.
We investigate the problem of zero-shot semantic image painting. Instead of painting modifications into an image using only concrete colors or a finite set of semantic concepts, we ask how to create semantic paint based on open full-text descriptions: our goal is to be able to point to a location in a synthesized image and apply an arbitrary new concept such as “rustic” or “opulent” or “happy dog.” To do this, our method combines a state-of-the art generative model of realistic images with a state-of-the-art text-image semantic similarity network. We find that, to make large changes, it is important to use non-gradient methods to explore latent space, and it is important to relax the computations of the GAN to target changes to a specific region. We conduct user studies to compare our methods to several baselines.
Generative adversarial networks achieve great performance in photorealistic image synthesis in various domains, including human images. However, they usually employ latent vectors that encode the sampled outputs globally. This does not allow convenient control of semantically-relevant individual parts of the image, and is not able to draw samples that only differ in partial aspects, such as clothing style. We address these limitations and present a generative model for images of dressed humans offering control over pose, local body part appearance and garment style. This is the first method to solve various aspects of human image generation such as global appearance sampling, pose transfer, parts and garment transfer, and parts sampling jointly in a unified framework. As our model encodes part-based latent appearance vectors in a normalized pose-independent space and warps them to different poses, it preserves body and clothing appearance under varying posture. Experiments show that our flexible and general generative method outperforms task-specific baselines for pose-conditioned image generation, pose transfer and part sampling in terms of realism and output resolution.
The hair and beauty industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This led to the development of various applications, such as virtual hair dyeing or hairstyle translations, to satisfy the need of the customers. Although there are several public hair datasets available for these applications, they consist of limited number of images with low resolution, which restrict their performance on high-quality hair editing. Therefore, we introduce a novel large-scale Korean hairstyle dataset, K-hairstyle, 256,679 with high-resolution images. In addition, K-hairstyle contains various hair attributes annotated by Korean expert hair stylists and hair segmentation masks. We validate the effectiveness of our dataset by leveraging several applications, such as hairstyle translation, and hair classification and hair retrieval. Furthermore, we will release K-hairstyle soon.
The aim of this paper is to map agricultural crops by classifying satellite image time series. Domain experts in agriculture work with crop type labels that are organised in a hierarchical tree structure, where coarse classes (like orchards) are subdivided into finer ones (like apples, pears, vines, etc.). We develop a crop classification method that exploits this expert knowledge and significantly improves the mapping of rare crop types. The three-level label hierarchy is encoded in a convolutional, recurrent neural network (convRNN), such that for each pixel the model predicts three labels at different level of granularity. This end-to-end trainable, hierarchical network architecture allows the model to learn joint feature representations of rare classes (e.g., apples, pears) at a coarser level (e.g., orchard), thereby boosting classification performance at the fine-grained level. Additionally, labelling at different granularity also makes it possible to adjust the output according to the classification scores; as coarser labels with high confidence are sometimes more useful for agricultural practice than fine-grained but very uncertain labels. We validate the proposed method on a new, large dataset that we make public. ZueriCrop covers an area of 50 km x 48 km in the Swiss cantons of Zurich and Thurgau with a total of 116’000 individual fields spanning 48 crop classes, and 28,000 (multi-temporal) image patches from Sentinel-2. We compare our proposed hierarchical convRNN model with several baselines, including methods designed for imbalanced class distributions. The hierarchical approach performs superior by at least 9.9 percentage points in F1-score.
The recent explosive interest on transformers has suggested their potential to become powerful “universal” models for computer vision tasks, such as classification, detection, and segmentation. However, how further transformers can go – are they ready to take some more notoriously difficult vision tasks, e.g., generative adversarial networks (GANs)?Driven by that curiosity, we conduct the first pilot study in building a GAN completely free of convolutions, using only pure transformer-based architectures. Our vanilla GAN architecture, dubbed TransGAN, consists of a memory-friendly transformer-based generator that progressively increases feature resolution while decreasing embedding dimension, and a patch-level discriminator that is also transformer-based. We then demonstrate TransGAN to notably benefit from data augmentations (more than standard GANs), a multi-task co-training strategy for the generator, and a locally initialized self-attention that emphasizes the neighborhood smoothness of natural images. Equipped with those findings, TransGAN can effectively scale up with bigger models and high-resolution image datasets. Specifically, our best architecture achieves highly competitive performance compared to current state-of-the-art GANs based on convolutional backbones. Specifically, TransGAN sets new state-of-the-art IS score of 10.10 and FID score of 25.32 on STL-10. It also reaches competitive 8.64 IS score and 11.89 FID score on Cifar-10, and 12.23 FID score on CelebA 64×64, respectively. We also conclude with a discussion of the current limitations and future potential of TransGAN.
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the visual quality of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Even so, these networks still suffer from degradation in quality for high-frequency content, stemming from a spectrally biased architecture, and similarly unfavorable loss functions. To address this issue, we present a novel general-purpose Style and WAvelet based GAN (SWAGAN) that implements progressive generation in the frequency domain. SWAGAN incorporates wavelets throughout its generator and discriminator architectures, enforcing a frequency-aware latent representation at every step of the way. This approach yields enhancements in the visual quality of the generated images, and considerably increases computational performance. We demonstrate the advantage of our method by integrating it into the SyleGAN2 framework, and verifying that content generation in the wavelet domain leads to higher quality images with more realistic high-frequency content. Furthermore, we verify that our model’s latent space retains the qualities that allow StyleGAN to serve as a basis for a multitude of editing tasks, and show that our frequency-aware approach also induces improved downstream visual quality.
Training generative adversarial networks (GAN) using too little data typically leads to discriminator overfitting, causing training to diverge. We propose an adaptive discriminator augmentation mechanism that significantly stabilizes training in limited data regimes. The approach does not require changes to loss functions or network architectures, and is applicable both when training from scratch and when fine-tuning an existing GAN on another dataset. We demonstrate, on several datasets, that good results are now possible using only a few thousand training images, often matching StyleGAN2 results with an order of magnitude fewer images. We expect this to open up new application domains for GANs. We also find that the widely used CIFAR-10 is, in fact, a limited data benchmark, and improve the record FID from 5.59 to 2.42.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are able to generate high resolution photo-realistic images of objects that “do not exist.” These synthetic images are rather difficult to detect as fake. However, the manner in which these generative models are trained hints at a potential for information leakage from the supplied training data, especially in the context of synthetic faces. This paper presents experiments suggesting that identity information in face images can flow from the training corpus into synthetic samples without any adversarial actions when building or using the existing model. This raises privacy-related questions, but also stimulates discussions of (a) the face manifold’s characteristics in the feature space and (b) how to create generative models that do not inadvertently reveal identity information of real subjects whose images were used for training. We used five different face matchers (face_recognition, FaceNet, ArcFace, SphereFace and Neurotechnology MegaMatcher) and the StyleGAN2 synthesis model, and show that this identity leakage does exist for some, but not all methods. So, can we say that these synthetically generated faces truly do not exist? Databases of real and synthetically generated faces are made available with this paper to allow full replicability of the results discussed in this work.