We investigate the sensitivity of the Fréchet Inception Distance (FID) score to inconsistent and often incorrect implementations across different image processing libraries. FID score is widely used to evaluate generative models, but each FID implementation uses a different low-level image processing process. Image resizing functions in commonly-used deep learning libraries often introduce aliasing artifacts. We observe that numerous subtle choices need to be made for FID calculation and a lack of consistencies in these choices can lead to vastly different FID scores. In particular, we show that the following choices are significant: (1) selecting what image resizing library to use, (2) choosing what interpolation kernel to use, (3) what encoding to use when representing images. We additionally outline numerous common pitfalls that should be avoided and provide recommendations for computing the FID score accurately. We provide an easy-to-use optimized implementation of our proposed recommendations in the accompanying code.
We introduce DatasetGAN: an automatic procedure to generate massive datasets of high-quality semantically segmented images requiring minimal human effort. Current deep networks are extremely data-hungry, benefiting from training on large-scale datasets, which are time consuming to annotate. Our method relies on the power of recent GANs to generate realistic images. We show how the GAN latent code can be decoded to produce a semantic segmentation of the image. Training the decoder only needs a few labeled examples to generalize to the rest of the latent space, resulting in an infinite annotated dataset generator! These generated datasets can then be used for training any computer vision architecture just as real datasets are. As only a few images need to be manually segmented, it becomes possible to annotate images in extreme detail and generate datasets with rich object and part segmentations. To showcase the power of our approach, we generated datasets for 7 image segmentation tasks which include pixel-level labels for 34 human face parts, and 32 car parts. Our approach outperforms all semi-supervised baselines significantly and is on par with fully supervised methods, which in some cases require as much as 100x more annotated data as our method.
Generative adversarial networks achieve great performance in photorealistic image synthesis in various domains, including human images. However, they usually employ latent vectors that encode the sampled outputs globally. This does not allow convenient control of semantically-relevant individual parts of the image, and is not able to draw samples that only differ in partial aspects, such as clothing style. We address these limitations and present a generative model for images of dressed humans offering control over pose, local body part appearance and garment style. This is the first method to solve various aspects of human image generation such as global appearance sampling, pose transfer, parts and garment transfer, and parts sampling jointly in a unified framework. As our model encodes part-based latent appearance vectors in a normalized pose-independent space and warps them to different poses, it preserves body and clothing appearance under varying posture. Experiments show that our flexible and general generative method outperforms task-specific baselines for pose-conditioned image generation, pose transfer and part sampling in terms of realism and output resolution.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have demonstrated unprecedented success in various image generation tasks. The encouraging results, however, come at the price of a cumbersome training process, during which the generator and discriminator are alternately updated in two stages. In this paper, we investigate a general training scheme that enables training GANs efficiently in only one stage. Based on the adversarial losses of the generator and discriminator, we categorize GANs into two classes, Symmetric GANs and Asymmetric GANs, and introduce a novel gradient decomposition method to unify the two, allowing us to train both classes in one stage and hence alleviate the training effort. Computational analysis and experimental results on several datasets and various network architectures demonstrate that, the proposed one-stage training scheme yields a solid 1.5× acceleration over conventional training schemes, regardless of the network architectures of the generator and discriminator. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method is readily applicable to other adversarial-training scenarios, such as data-free knowledge distillation.