Intimacy is a fundamental aspect of how we relate to others in social settings. Language encodes the social information of intimacy through both topics and other more subtle cues (such as linguistic hedging and swearing). Here, we introduce a new computational framework for studying expressions of the intimacy in language with an accompanying dataset and deep learning model for accurately predicting the intimacy level of questions (Pearson’s r=0.87). Through analyzing a dataset of 80.5M questions across social media, books, and films, we show that individuals employ interpersonal pragmatic moves in their language to align their intimacy with social settings. Then, in three studies, we further demonstrate how individuals modulate their intimacy to match social norms around gender, social distance, and audience, each validating key findings from studies in social psychology. Our work demonstrates that intimacy is a pervasive and impactful social dimension of language.
We present M3ER, a learning-based method for emotion recognition from multiple input modalities. Our approach combines cues from multiple co-occurring modalities (such as face, text, and speech) and also is more robust than other methods to sensor noise in any of the individual modalities. M3ER models a novel, data-driven multiplicative fusion method to combine the modalities, which learn to emphasize the more reliable cues and suppress others on a persample basis. By introducing a check step which uses Canonical Correlational Analysis to differentiate between ineffective and effective modalities, M3ER is robust to sensor noise. M3ER also generates proxy features in place of the ineffectual modalities. We demonstrate the efficiency of our network through experimentation on two benchmark datasets, IEMOCAP and CMU-MOSEI. We report a mean accuracy of 82.7% on IEMOCAP and 89.0% on CMU-MOSEI, which, collectively, is an improvement of about 5% over prior work.